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Plan B, continuidad de operaciones Destacado

Con buena cara Con buena cara

El impacto de los desastres sobre el desarrollo social y económico de un país no depende solamente de la intensidad del fenómeno que lo impacta, está directamente relacionado con nuestro nivel de preparación. Los escenarios de peligro se originan a nivel local por lo que entre mejor preparados nos encontremos para enfrentar estos riesgos, menor los daños que habremos de reportar ante la ocurrencia de un desastre. La reducción de riesgo de desastre es sin excepción, una responsabilidad de todos, pero también es una prioridad que no obtendrá frutos significativos sin el esfuerzo concurrente organizado y solidario de cada Individuo, de cada organización, de cada comunidad, de cada pueblo, municipio, región, estado.
De acuerdo con la más reciente Evaluación Global sobre la Reducción de Riesgo de Desastres (GAR, 2013), en los últimos años se han registrado pérdidas económicas directas que superan los 100 mil millones de dólares. Se tiene previsto que los daños ocasionados por terremotos y vientos ciclónicos asciendan a 180 mil millones de dólares americanos, cifra que no contempla el costo local de los desastres que afecta organizaciones públicas y privadas por igual debido a inundaciones, aludes, incendios y tormentas o interrupciones de las organizacionales de la sociedad.
El mundo globalizado en el que hoy vivimos ofrece oportunidades de crecimiento y desarrollo, las dependencias e interdependencias generadas por esta dinámica globalizadora (de los mercados financieros y la cadena de suministros) nos lleva también a compartir nuevos riesgos. Debido a ello, hoy el impacto adverso de un desastre a nivel local puede llegar a traspasar fronteras y tener un impacto igual de desfavorable en otras regiones del mundo. Los esfuerzos por mitigar el impacto negativo de los desastres son cada vez mayores y cada vez más requieren de un enfoque glocal1 que sume, de las organizaciones públicas y privadas, a la coordinación de esfuerzos en la reducción de riesgo de desastre.
Hoy, las empresas privadas no solo deben prever aquellos riesgos que enfrentan continuamente debido a su ubicación geográfica, sino de la vulnerabilidad ante una economía globalizada y a una cadena de suministros cada vez más intercomunicada. Por su parte la autoridad local debe trabajar para proteger la infraestructura crítica, y garantizar la provisión de servicios necesarios para el funcionamiento de la sociedad ante la ocurrencia de un desastre, teniendo como base el funcionamiento de las organizaciones privadas. Por ello, las empresas del sector privado deben ser vistas como un aliado clave de las instituciones de gobierno por su rol estratégico en los trabajos de recuperación de una comunidad y de su gente. El trabajo coordinado y la suma de esfuerzos de los sectores público y privado por construir esquemas de resiliencia institucional a través del concepto de continuidad –proceso que nos permite garantizar la operación y funcionalidad de organizaciones públicas y privadas a nivel local- contribuyen a garantizar el desarrollo de nuestras comunidades. Es que juntos, organizaciones públicas y privadas generarán condiciones que garantizan capacidades institucionales para el funcionamiento básico y de coordinación entre sectores que permiten no interrumpir la continuidad del desarrollo económico, político y social.
Es importante reconocerlo, ningún gobierno, ningún grupo de la sociedad, y ninguna persona puede atender de manera aislada e independiente el impacto negativo de los desastres, por lo que el trabajo debe ser permanente: los riesgos están en constante cambio, su identificación y análisis se convierten en una tarea de todos los días, el reto: la aparición de nuevas amenazas y riesgos. Enfermedades que viajan a la misma velocidad que un jet, conflictos armados en medio oriente, Asia y Europa o la actividad volcánica que modifica rutas de navegación, nos recuerdan la importancia que desde la alta dirección de las organizaciones o del liderazgo político de los gobiernos se debe dar al continuo seguimiento y análisis del ámbito internacional.
Nadie está exento de verse afectado: no lo está el trabajador de una fábrica, el empresario, el ganadero-el agricultor, no lo está el estudiante, el médico, el profesionista, no lo está la organización que hace trabajo comunitario pero tampoco lo está la estructura de gobierno. El trabajo conjunto propicia identificar los riesgos que enfrentamos todos y así poder definir las acciones que fortalezcan un esquema de seguridad integral para y con la población.
El concepto de Continuidad en sus tres niveles –de operaciones, de gobierno y del desarrollo- es una herramienta para la reducción de riesgo de desastres. Es también, el espacio natural, el terreno fértil para la construcciones de alianzas público-privado en donde el trabajo coordinado entre sectores reconoce el riesgo compartido y contribuye a la estabilidad y desarrollo de la sociedad.
_______________________

Presentación del estudio auspiciado por el Sistema Económico Latinoamericano y del Caribe (SELA) Continuidad de Operaciones (COOP) y Continuidad de Gobierno (COG): Guía de implementación para gobiernos y empresas locales, documento base del III Seminario Regional “Alianzas entre el sector público y privado para la gestión del riesgo de desastres. Continuidad de gobierno y continuidad de negocios y operaciones ante situaciones de desastres en América Latina y el
Caribe: Avances y experiencias desde la perspectiva desde los gobiernos y las empresas locales”.
Este documento que se propone despertar la discusión sobre la adopción de políticas de continuidad como herramienta para la reducción de riesgo de desastres (RRD) y perfilarse como un instrumento, una guía para la adopción de una estrategia de continuidad en los sectores público y privado a nivel local que nos permita minimizar el costo de futuros desastres y contribuir al continuo desarrollo de nuestras comunidades.

Documento disponible en:

http://www.sela.org/attach/258/EDOCS/SRed/2014/09/T023600006059-0-Continuidad_de_Operaciones_y_Continuidad_de_Gobierno_-_Guia_de_implementacion.pdf

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Continuidad de Operaciones (COOP) y Continuidad de Gobierno (COG) para gobiernos y empresas locales

48 comentarios

  • AkiporteCop
    AkiporteCop Viernes, 09 Marzo 2018 11:16 Enlace al Comentario

    Several trials report that the addition of G-CSF to ESAs improves hematologic response. Wearing protective clothing that limits access to human skin in areas of high insect activity is highly advisable. Upper endoscopy is largely replacing contrast studies in the diagnosis of upper GI tract disorders, but in certain instances they can be a tool in establishing a diagnosis prior to endoscopic evaluation. calcitriol.anafranil.asacol Additional benefits of preventing measles infections through vaccination have recently come to light. Average healthy urine production ranges from 40 to 80 mL/h and the adult bladder capacity ranges from 300 to 400 mL. Most recently, 212 patients with skin test positively to a penicillin underwent skin testing with ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem. prazosin.minocycline.phenazopyridine The interference is concentration-dependent and results in a 10% to 100% decrease of the Scr. ERCP is an important therapeutic procedure that combines endoscopy and fluoroscopic imaging techniques to evaluate and treat diseases of the pancreaticobiliary tree. sertralin.apcalis.naprosyn Lymphocytes comprise 15% to 40% of all WBCs and are of central importance to the immune system. Then decreases in vital capacity occur, followed by progressive abnormalities in carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. carbamazepine.anaprox.hydrochlorothiazide During a continuous IV infusion at steady state, VD,ss is used to compute the amount of drug in the body (amount of drug in body = VD,ssC). Osteoporosis. purim.vantin.ezetimibe Medical therapy with dopamine agonists has proven to be very effective in normalizing prolactin serum concentrations, restoring gonadal function, and reducing tumor size and is recommended by The Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines as first-line therapy (strong recommendation with high quality evidence). This project continued until the early 1970s despite the availability of penicillin and confirmation in the 1940s that penicillin was an effective treatment for syphilis. His last CD4+ cell count was 100 cells/mm (0.1 Г— 10/L).

  • AkiporteCop
    AkiporteCop Viernes, 09 Marzo 2018 08:50 Enlace al Comentario

    Examples of diseases and syndromes that can present as common problems in older adults include Parkinson's disease, falls, hip fractures, benign prostatic hypertrophy, dementia, glaucoma, and postherpetic neuralgia. As outlined in the CLAS standards, organizations receiving federal funds (indirect or direct) must provide meaningful access to persons with LEP. Another IOM report in 2007, "Preventing Medication Errors," described system changes that are necessary to improve safety to include computerized physician order entry (CPOE), bar-code-assisted medication administration (BCMA), multidisciplinary communication, and the active involvement of patients in their treatment. protonix.forzest.plendil Such a kit can contain medications and health-related supplies for a single traveler, a family, or a group of travelers. For example, urban crowding has led to increases in water-collecting trash, a breeding ground for Aedes aegypti, the vector for Dengue. pravachol.ventolin.combantrin The risk of MDS increases with age; in patients older than 65 to 70 years, an estimated 27 to 75 new cases occur per 100,000 persons per year. CHIKV infection are rarely fatal (1%), although the elderly may have worse prognoses than younger individuals. Under steady-state conditions, serum concentrations after each dose are identical, so the predose miimum concentration is the same before each dose (Fig. parlodel.paroxetine.terazosin Conversely, the human body contains a vast variety of microorganisms that colonize body systems and make up the so-called normal flora. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is an example of a minimally invasive procedure for PAD. The observed swallowing of the contrast agent permits visualization and monitoring of esophageal structural and motor functions. suhagra.selegiline.cycrin There are definite trends from stakeholders in managed care, government, and academe to incorporate cultural competence for the purpose of improving quality of care and in some cases as a business imperative. Of interest, when multivariate population pharmacokinetic analyses are conducted, age by itself seldom is a significant predictor of individual pharmacokinetic parameters (eg, clearance). tryptophan.cytotec.omeprazole Usual drug culprits include amiodarone, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, psoralens, and coal tar. Moles are examined for asymmetry, irregular borders, variegated colors, and size (Fig.

  • AkiporteCop
    AkiporteCop Viernes, 09 Marzo 2018 08:44 Enlace al Comentario

    While patients in early stages of suspected bubonic plague may have negative blood gram stains, cultures may yield the organism. The "just culture" approach encourages all employees to be stakeholders in the prevention of MEs and ADEs. The entity called traveler's diarrhea is defined as three or more unformed stools per 24 hours plus at least one additional symptom (abdominal cramping, tenesmus, nausea, vomiting, fever, or fecal urgency). sertraline.vimax.kytril Barium sulfate and/or Gastrograffin can reveal mucosal defects and lumen size, and are helpful in diagnosing hiatal hernias, strictures along the GI tract, polyps, tumors, and in some cases ulcers. This is important for all patients regardless of their health literacy level. In a retrospective study, the risk factors for development of IPS and prognostic factors for outcomes were evaluated in 94 patients with relapsed Hodgkin disease treated with BCNU containing high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic support. galantamine.persantine.tadacip This may have importance with medications that are costly such as recently marketed hepatitis C treatments or when adherence is extremely important such as with tuberculosis treatment or post-transplant immunosuppression. For the chapter in the Wells Handbook, please go to Chapter 77. phenytoin.aleve.proben The plasma protein binding of many drugs, including phenobarbital, salicylates, and phenytoin, is significantly less in the neonate than in adults. The BIS, another eGFR equation includes cysC for CKD classification. This prognostic information appears to be independent of and complementary to data obtained from the history and ECG. lynoral.lotensin.axetil Nonimmune DHR refers to a wide array of reactions ranging from localized hives to life-threatening angioedema, hypotension, and anaphylaxis, all of which are explained by the nonimmunologic release or activation of inflammatory mediators. The cost effectiveness of universal HLA-B*15:02 screening was demonstrated in a population from Thailand, where only about 340 patients need to be genotyped to prevent one case of SJS or TEN. Again, explicit criteria such as START and the implicit Assessment of Underuse (AOU) criteria may help clinicians identify evidence-based drugs for specific conditions from which older adults would benefit. avandaryl.indomethacin.pyridium The preferred regimen is not known because the regimens have not been compared in controlled clinical trials. It is available in various oral dosage forms, including extended-release preparations and an intravenous formulation.

  • AkiporteCop
    AkiporteCop Viernes, 09 Marzo 2018 06:19 Enlace al Comentario

    Genetic, environmental, and immune factors all play a role in the development of celiac disease. Each drug is an example of targeted therapy against growth factors important in the pathophysiology of RCC and has yielded much needed progress in a disease with few therapeutic options. omnicef.aripiprazole.xatral In most patients, the initial signs and symptoms occur in the skin (flushing, pruritus, urticaria, and angioedema). For the chapter in the Wells Handbook, please go to Chapter 65. estradiol.vivitrol.sumycin For the chapter in the Wells Handbook, please go to Chapter 55. A major barrier to consolidating data from adherence studies is that there is no generally accepted "gold standard" for measuring medication adherence, making overall conclusions difficult. After overnight incubation, elliptical zones of inhibition are formed; the point where the bottom of the ellipse crosses the plastic strip is correlated with an MIC value printed on the strip (Fig. esidrix.azulfidine.felodipine Elevated serum concentrations of BNP and NT-proBNP may be detected in patients with an acute coronary syndrome. Intraabdominal Infections. dugen.enteral.zanaflex Limited health literacy has also been associated with a decreased ability for "medication management"—the ability to self-administer a medication regimen as it has been prescribed. It is a mild, reversible, nonimmune-mediated reaction that usually occurs within the first 2 days of therapy. Numerous studies have reported that the MDRD4 and CKD-EPI eGFR equation derived values overestimate CG equation values for eCLcr. lax.hydra.norethindrone The primary clinical application of the PAE is to allow for less frequent administration of antimicrobials while still maintaining adequate antibacterial activity (eg, extended-interval aminoglycoside administration). Patients may receive palliative care throughout the course of a serious illness, including while the patient receives treatment aimed at managing or curing the disease. It can occur at any age, with increasing prevalence up to the seventh decade of life.

  • AkiporteCop
    AkiporteCop Viernes, 09 Marzo 2018 06:19 Enlace al Comentario

    This model proposes that there is a pathophysiologic or etiologic reason for disease. For the chapter in the Wells Handbook, please go to Chapter 29. https://osendarpvacuum.com/stmap_powo94.html?simvastatin.entocort.diovan Appropriate monitoring of therapy for GHD and non-GHD short stature includes regular assessments of height, weight, growth velocity, serum IGF-1 concentrations, and bone age every 6 to 12 months. Large volumes of these osmotically balanced solutions are administered continuously through a nasogastric or duodenal tube for 4 to 12 hours or more. https://osendarpvacuum.com/stmap_powo123.html?revatio.metaglip.vera Dyslipidemia. In recent years, double-β lactam therapy such as ampicillin and ceftriaxone has been shown to be effective. https://osendarpvacuum.com/stmap_powo139.html?ovral.levothroid.co-diovan Prior to the development and administration of the pertussis vaccine there were between 100,000 and 250,000 cases of pertussis or "whooping cough" in the US each year. For patients receiving opioid therapy who require dosing throughout the day to maintain pain control, palliative care practitioners should consider initiation of a long-acting (LA) or extended-release (ER) formulation of an opioid. https://osendarpvacuum.com/stmap_powo154.html?relafen.nimodipine.zicam Although the phenomenon of tolerance has been documented for β-lactams and glycopeptides against certain staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, its impact on the outcome of infections caused by organisms other than those just mentioned appears to be limited. Iron may inhibit aerobic glycolysis and perturb the electron transport system. MEs are also very costly—to healthcare systems, patients and their families, and healthcare workers. https://osendarpvacuum.com/stmap_powo218.html?cardura.fludac.oretic Tracers such as rubidium 82 (Rb) and nitrogen 13 (N) are retained in the myocardium in proportion to blood flow. Case reports suggest that an IV bolus of regular insulin (0.5-1 U/kg) with 50 mL dextrose 50% (0.25 mg/kg for children) followed by a continuous infusion of regular insulin (0.5-1 U/kg/h) may improve myocardial contractility.

  • AkiporteCop
    AkiporteCop Jueves, 08 Marzo 2018 18:52 Enlace al Comentario

    The major indications for exercise testing are determination of exercise capacity, evaluation of dyspnea on exertion, evaluation of exercise-induced bronchospasm, and further assessment of suspected arterial desaturation during exercise. Other drugs that produce the lupus syndrome include isoniazid and phenytoin. https://choir-practice.com/stmap_rqk1134.html?apap.arimidex.glucophage A variety of crystals may be visualized in the urinary sediment in healthy individuals as well as those with kidney diseases. N-acetylglucosaminidase, alanine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, Оі-glutamyltransferase, and lysozyme) to detect early rejection episodes in kidney transplant patients. https://choir-practice.com/stmap_rqk150.html?dapsone.oxcarbazepine.singulair A 91-year-old nursing home patient presents to the emergency department with recent mental status changes including dizziness, confusion, and aggression over the past two days. For example, it may be desirable to maintain maximum steady-state concentrations at 20 mg/L and minimum steady-state concentrations at 10 mg/L. https://choir-practice.com/stmap_rqk1171.html?levonorgestrel.lotensin.azathioprine Only limited data have suggested that interventions that lower hs-CRP concentrations (ie, aspirin and statins) are beneficial. Meperidine's metabolite, normeperidine, produces CNS excitation that leads to delirium, tremor, and seizures. While there has been minimal improvement in survival over the past 40 years, recent data have shown some progress from 2005 to 2012 (adjusted rate ratio = 1.47 .26-1.7]). https://choir-practice.com/stmap_rqk1225.html?nizagara.kalma.apri The reported prevalence of insulin allergy is 0.1% to 3% and the most common manifestation is an IgE-mediated local reaction at the injection site. P-gp is present in many organs, including the GI tract, liver, and kidney. Children will reach normalized adult values by 3 years, and ERPF will begin to decline as a function of age after 30 years, reaching about one-half of its peak value by 90 years. https://choir-practice.com/stmap_rqk1185.html?norvasc.keppra.hytrin Which of the following clinical characteristics is common to patients with GHD short stature? Rapid progression and death within a few days occur in a small percentage of patients.

  • AkiporteCop
    AkiporteCop Jueves, 08 Marzo 2018 14:04 Enlace al Comentario

    With this technique, the intraluminal pressure is measured proximal and distal to the stenosis during maximal blood flow (ie, hyperemia). Either DNA hypomethylating agent is appropriate for lower-risk MDS patients who are transfusion dependent or who are symptomatic despite management with best supportive care. In addition, the smallest font sizes were used to display the medication name (an average of 8.9 points) and medication instructions (9.3 points). https://deskule.nl/stmap_yi8v222.html?mentax.prilosec.sotret If the drug is given orally, the drug molecules must pass through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract wall into capillaries. While the CheckMate 025 survival data suggests that nivolumab could be a favorable option for RCC patients following progression after VEGF-targeted therapy, additional studies are needed to identify biomarkers that identify which patients may have a more "immune-responsive" disease, and thus are more likely to respond to nivolumab and other check point inhibitor immunotherapies. As pegvisomant acts at the GH receptor, researchers have investigated response to GH receptor variants. https://deskule.nl/stmap_yi8v100.html?cytotec.acetazolamide.eulexin Monitoring guidelines suggest that a urine albumin to creatinine ratio of more than 30 mg/g (greater than 3.4 mg/mmol) places the patient at increased risk of developing diabetic nephropathy, mortality, and ESRD and is an indication for the initiation of pharmacotherapeutic intervention. Measurement of renal plasma and blood flow is rarely, if ever, determined in the clinical setting; and it is only occasionally used in research settings to evaluate hemodynamic changes related to disease or drug therapy. Healthcare providers, especially nurses and pharmacists, are accustomed to regularly administering vaccinations, which offer preexposure protection against a variety of infections, such as influenza, measles, pertussis, and polio. https://deskule.nl/stmap_yi8v219.html?ketorolac.venlor.amitriptyline In general, the magnitude of drug interactions involving inhibition of CYP2D6 is much greater in EMs versus PMs, who have either little or no enzyme activity. Specific abdominal structures that may be identified include the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. https://deskule.nl/stmap_yi8v68.html?dipyridamole.famvir.imigran Genetic predisposition to the development of hyperprolactinemia has been reported involving the D2-receptor and hormone-related genes. These mutations are responsible for about 13% of sporadic type 1 disease, but chromosome 7 duplications have been found in 75% of these cases, further supporting the oncogenic role of MET. https://deskule.nl/stmap_yi8v227.html?coral.toprol.volmax This cimetidine dosing schedule also improved the accuracy of CG eCLcr relative to GFR in renal transplant patients with GFR values ranging from 20 to 80 mL/min/1.73 m (0.19-0.77 mL/s/m). Tests for general fitness include the 6-minute walking distance and the Harvard step test. However, the packaging was not to be difficult for normal adults to use properly.

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